Judo (柔道, jūdō, which means “mild manner”) was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎). three Judo, a martial artwork, is organised at world degree by the International Judo Federation (the IJF). At European stage, the membership of the European Judo Union (the EJU) contains the varied nationwide federations. The Belgian federation is the LBJ, which offers basically with international competitions and is accountable for the choice of athletes with a view to participation in worldwide tournaments. The LBJ is made up of two regional leagues, the Vlaamse Judofederatie (the VJF) and the LFJ. The members of the LFJ are the two regional leagues and the golf equipment affiliated to them. Judokas are members of a membership which is itself a member of the regional league, and the latter issues licences to members enabling them to take part in courses or competitions. The holder of a licence is required to simply accept all the obligations imposed by the regional league under its statutes and rules.
9 The events immediately giving rise to the primary proceedings concern participation in the Paris Class A International Tournament of 10 and eleven February 1996. As a result of the LBJ had selected two other athletes who, in Ms Deliège’s view, had achieved less outstanding outcomes than her own, on 26 January 1996 Ms Deliège made an software for interim measures to the Tribunal de Première Instance, Namur.
sixty seven Accordingly, it naturally falls to the our bodies concerned, akin to organisers of tournaments, sports federations or professional athletes’ associations, to put down acceptable guidelines and to make their selections in accordance with them.
3. The Treaty provisions concerning freedom of movement for individuals don’t stop the adoption of guidelines or practices in the field of sport excluding foreign players from certain matches for causes which are not of an economic nature, which relate to the particular nature and context of such matches and are thus of sporting interest only, akin to, for instance, matches between nationwide groups from completely different nations. That restriction on the scope of the provisions in query should, nonetheless, remain limited to its proper objective and cannot be relied upon to exclude the entire of a sporting activity from the scope of the Treaty.
2. Having regard to the objectives of the Community, sport is subject to Community law solely in so far as it constitutes an economic activity within the that means of Article 2 of the Treaty (now, after modification, Article 2 EC). That applies to the professional or semi-professional exercise of judokas, provided that they are working as employed persons or offering providers for remuneration and that the activity is genuine and efficient and not comparable to to be considered purely marginal and ancillary.