Judo (柔道, jūdō, meaning “light way”) was created as a bodily, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎). 47 As regards the nature of the foundations at subject, it is clear from the judgments in Walrave and Koch (paragraphs 17 and 18) and Bosman (paragraphs 82 and eighty three), cited above, that the Community provisions on the free motion of persons and providers not solely apply to the motion of public authorities however extend additionally to rules of some other nature geared toward regulating gainful employment and the supply of providers in a collective method. The abolition as between Member States of obstacles to freedom of motion for persons and to freedom to supply services can be compromised if the abolition of State limitations could possibly be neutralised by obstacles resulting from the exercise, by associations or organisations not governed by public law, of their authorized autonomy.
5 In accordance with the selection standards for the Atlanta Olympic Games adopted by the IJF on 19 October 1993 in Madrid, these qualifying for those video games included, in every category, the first eight in the newest world championships and various judokas for every continent (for Europe, 9 men and five women in each class), to be chosen on the idea of the outcomes obtained by each judoka in a specified variety of tournaments throughout the run-up to the Olympics. For that function, the EJU stated, on the abovementioned Amsterdam meeting and Nicosia congress, that account would be taken of one of the best three results achieved at Category A tournaments and senior European championships over the interval extending from the 1995 World Championships to the 1996 European Championships. It also directed that it might be the federations which qualified, not judokas individually.
forty six In that … Read the rest